The Digital Twin (DT) Concept Has Been Developed for a Single Function in Previous Studies. This Study Aims to Empower DTs with a Layered Integration of Multifunctional Models in the Built Environment. It Develops a Framework of DT Modules in Three Hierarchical Tiers: Region, Asset, and System; Defines a New Concept of the Degree of Digital Twinning (DODT) to the Real World by the Number of Models Enabled by a Common DT Platform; and Enables Spatiotemporal Analysis in Multiple Scales to Couple Nonstructural with Structural Building Components and Connect the Built Environment to Planning Constructions. While the Asset and System DTs Focus on the Lifecycle Management of Buildings and Infrastructure Systems, the Region DT Addresses Diverse Modeling Approaches for a Comprehensive Management of the Built Environment as Demonstrated on a University Campus. the DODT Allows the Value-Driven Digital Replication of a Physical Twin at Different Levels. for the Campus Case Study, the DODT is Eight, for Building and Infrastructure Planning, Condition Assessment of Building Envelopes, Construction Management for Efficiency and Quality, Damage/cost Scenario Studies under Earthquake Events, Energy Harvesting Efficiency, Environmental Planning for Flood Zone Susceptibility, Master Planning for Green Space Development, and Security Protocol Development.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Publication Status

Open Access


U.S. Department of Transportation, Grant 69A3551747126

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)


Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

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© 2024 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2024