An MXene-graphene field-effect transistor (FET) sensor for both influenza virus and 2019-nCoV sensing was developed and characterized. The developed sensor combines the high chemical sensitivity of MXene and the continuity of large-area high-quality graphene to form an ultra-sensitive virus-sensing transduction material (VSTM). Through polymer linking, we are able to utilize antibody-antigen binding to achieve electrochemical signal transduction when viruses are deposited onto the VSTM surface. The MXene-graphene VSTM was integrated into a microfluidic channel that can directly receive viruses in solution. The developed sensor was tested with various concentrations of antigens from two viruses: inactivated influenza A (H1N1) HA virus ranging from 125 to 250,000 copies/mL and a recombinant 2019-nCoV spike protein ranging from 1 fg/mL to 10 pg/mL. The average response time was about ∼50 ms, which is significantly faster than the existing real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method ( > 3 h). The low limit of detection (125 copies/mL for the influenza virus and 1 fg/mL for the recombinant 2019-nCoV spike protein) has demonstrated the sensitivity of the MXene-graphene VSTM on the FET platform to virus sensing. Especially, the high signal-to-viral load ratio (∼10% change in source-drain current and gate voltage) also demonstrates the ultra-sensitivity of the developed MXene-graphene FET sensor. In addition, the specificity of the sensor was also demonstrated by depositing the inactivated influenza A (H1N1) HA virus and the recombinant 2019-nCoV spike protein onto microfluidic channels with opposite antibodies, producing signal differences that are about 10 times lower. Thus, we have successfully fabricated a relatively low-cost, ultrasensitive, fast-responding, and specific inactivated influenza A (H1N1) and 2019-nCoV sensor with the MXene-graphene VSTM.
Y. Li and Z. Peng and N. J. Holl and M. R. Hassan and J. M. Pappas and C. Wei and O. H. Izadi and Y. Wang and X. Dong and C. Wang and Y. Huang and D. Kim and C. Wu, "MXene-Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Sensing of Influenza Virus and SARS-CoV-2," ACS Omega, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 6643-6653, American Chemical Society (ACS), Mar 2021.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05421
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16 Mar 2021