Microbiome and NAFLD: Potential Influence of Aerobic Fitness and Lifestyle Modification
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease with prevalence rates that are on the rise in the US and worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of liver pathologies including simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with inflammation and fibrosis. The gut microbiome has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in combating metabolic diseases including obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD/NASH. Dietinduced obesity/Western style diet feeding causes severe microbial dysbiosis initiating a microbiome signature that promotes metabolite production that directly impacts hepatic metabolism. Changes in lifestyle (i.e., diet, exercise, and aerobic fitness) improve NAFLD outcomes and can significantly influence the microbiome. However, directly linking lifestyle-induced remodeling of the microbiome to NAFLD pathogenesis is not well understood. Understanding the reshaping of the microbiome and the metabolites produced and their subsequent actions on hepatic metabolism are vital in understanding the gut-liver axis. In this review, we 1) discuss microbiome-derived metabolites that significantly contribute to the gut-liver axis and are directly linked to NAFLD/NASH and 2) present evidence on lifestyle modifications reshaping the microbiome and the potential therapeutic aspects in combating the disease.
M. R. Panasevich et al., "Microbiome and NAFLD: Potential Influence of Aerobic Fitness and Lifestyle Modification," Physiological Genomics, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 385-399, American Physiological Society, Aug 2017.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00012.2017
Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Lipopolysaccharide; Prebiotic agent; Probiotic agent; Actinobacteria; Aerobic exercise; Bacteroidetes; Diet induced obesity; Dysbiosis; Endotoxemia; Firmicutes; Fitness; Fusobacteria; Human; Intestine flora; Intestine mucosa permeability; Lifestyle modification; Lipid diet; Liver cancer; Metabolite; Microbial metabolism; Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; Nonalcoholic fatty liver; Nonhuman; Obesity; Athogenesis; Priority journal; Proteobacteria; Review; RNA sequence; Western diet; Intestine flora; Lifestyle; Microbiology; Microflora; Nonalcoholic fatty liver; Pathophysiology; Physiology; Diabetes Mellitus; Type 2; Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Life Style; Microbiota; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Lifestyle modifications; Microbial metabolites; Microbiome; NAFLD
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
© 2017 American Physiological Society, All rights reserved.
01 Aug 2017