Progress to Understand Influence of Reinforcement Density on SCC Lateral Pressure


In addition to material properties, casting conditions, and formwork characteristics, presence and density of reinforcing bars can play a role on the resulting lateral pressure exerted by self-consolidating concrete (SCC) on formwork system. The effect of density of vertical reinforcement and spacing between reinforcing steel and formwork surface (concrete cover) on SCC lateral pressure were investigated in this study using laboratory-scale columns measuring 1.4 m in height. The effect of casting rate and concrete structural build-up at rest were also considered. A model was proposed to estimate SCC lateral pressure taking into consideration reinforcement density and concrete cover. A 6-m high column cast as part of field experimental study was used to validate the laboratory results. The results showed that the increase in steel reinforcement density placed at relatively small cover of 25 mm can reduce the maximum lateral pressure. At casting depth of 3 m and a concrete cover of 25 mm, increasing the reinforcement density from 0.5 to 4%, can reduce lateral pressure from 4 to 22%. The lateral pressure reduction is less significant when concrete cover increases to 50 mm or at deeper casting depths. A 2–17% pressure reductions for the 50-mm concrete cover, and 1–7% for the 5-m casting depth can be estimated. Based on the obtained results, a factor accounting for lateral pressure reduction due to the inclusion of vertical reinforcement was introduced in the pressure prediction models proposed by Khayat and Omran (State-of-the-art review of form pressure exerted by self-consolidating concrete, 2. http://www.concretesdc.org/projects/SCCreport.htm).


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Concretes; Reinforced concrete; Reinforcement; Casting conditions; Lateral pressures; Pressure predictions; Reinforcement density; Self-consolidating concrete; State-of-the art reviews; Steel reinforcements; Vertical reinforcement; Concrete reinforcements; Formwork lateral pressure

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1359-5997; 1871-6873

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2017 Kluwer Academic Publishers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2017