Mix Design Approach for Low-Powder Self-Consolidating Concrete: Eco-SCC--Content Optimization and Performance


Commitment to reducing the environmental impact of concrete construction is of great importance nowadays. In case of self-consolidating concrete (SCC), this is of critical significance given the high binder content of such concrete needed to ensure the required rheological properties. The present study proposes an appropriate design approach for producing SCC of low carbon footprint (Eco-SCC). The maximum powder content for an Eco-SCC mixture is set to 315 kg/m3. The design method is based on optimization of the volumetric proportions of sand and coarse aggregate according to an ideal particle gradation curve. The water content is adjusted to provide the necessary minimum paste volume to obtain self-consolidating properties. Silica fume, fly ash, and limestone fillers are used as powder materials along with a Type GU portland cement. The powder composition is determined according to rheological optimization of paste to reduce the water demand while satisfying mechanical properties, durability aspects, and environmental considerations. Such design method is found to be effective for obtaining Eco-SCC. Mixtures with total powder content ranging from 280 to 310 kg/m3 are shown to exhibit satisfactory workability characteristics and 28-day compressive strengths in the range of 25-30 MPa. The durability and drying shrinkage of the investigated mixtures are found to be adequate. The eco-efficiency of Eco-SCC mixtures is assessed and shown to be within the optimum area.


Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Carbon; Carbon footprint; Compressive strength; Concretes; Curve fitting; Durability; Environmental impact; Fly ash; Mechanical properties; Mixtures; Particle size; Portland cement; Silica fume; Appropriate designs; Environmental considerations; Mix designs; Optimization and performance; Rheological property; Self-consolidating concrete; Size optimization; Workability; Design; Ecological self-consolidating concrete; Particle-size optimization

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1359-5997; 1871-6873

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2017 Kluwer Academic Publishers, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Apr 2017