N-acetylcysteineamide Protects against Manganese-induced Toxicity in SHSY5Y Cell Line
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for normal cellular functioning. However, overexposure of Mn can be neurotoxic resulting in the development of manganism, a syndrome that resembles Parkinson's disease. Although the pathogenetic basis of this disorder is unclear, several studies indicate that it is mainly associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial energy failure. Therefore, this study is focused on (1) investigating the oxidative effects of Mn on neuroblastoma cells (SHSY5Y) and (2) elucidating whether a novel thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), provides any protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were highly elevated after the exposure, indicating that mechanisms that induce oxidative stress were involved. Measures of oxidative stress parameters, such as glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were altered in the Mn-treated groups. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, as assessed by flow cytometry and decreased levels of ATP, indicated that cytotoxicity was mediated through mitochondrial dysfunction. However, pretreatment with NACA protected against Mn-induced toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging ROS, and preserving intracellular GSH and mitochondrial membrane potential. NACA can potentially be developed into a promising therapeutic option for Mn-induced neurotoxicity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Metals in neurodegeneration.
S. K. Maddirala et al., "N-acetylcysteineamide Protects against Manganese-induced Toxicity in SHSY5Y Cell Line," Brain Research, vol. 1608, pp. 157-166, Elsevier, Jan 2015.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2015.02.006
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