Abstract: In this research, we report a scientific investigation of an efficient method used for the synthesis of highly active Palladium Nanoparticles decorated with Fe3O4, Co3O4, and Ni (OH)2 Supported on Graphene as Potential Efficient Catalysts for Suzuki Cross—Coupling. Pd/Fe3O4 nanoparticles supported on graphene nanosheets (Pd/Fe3O4/G) showed an excellent catalytic activity for Suzuki coupling reactions and recycled for up to four times without loss of catalytic activity. An efficient magnetic catalyst has been successfully synthesized using a simple, reproducible fast and reliable method using microwave irradiation conditions. The prepared catalysts are magnetic as in case of iron and cobalt oxides which is an advantage in the separation process of catalyst from the reaction medium via applying a strong external magnetic field. The synthesis approach is based on the Microwave (MW)-assisted simultaneous reduction of palladium and ferric nitrates in the presence of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets using hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. The results provide a fundamental understanding of the system variables by comparing the catalytic activity and recyclability of different catalysts with different properties. The most active and recyclable catalyst was Pd–Fe3O4—supported on graphene which offers several added advantages including recyclability of up to seven times, mild reaction conditions, and short reaction times in an environmentally benign solvent system. Furthermore, the magnetic properties imparted by the Fe3O4 component of the catalyst enables the catalyst to be easily isolated and recycled, thus greatly simplifying the ability to purify the reaction products and increasing the economic value of the catalyst. The utility of these magnetic catalysts towards Suzuki cross coupling reaction was also demonstrated. The high activity and recyclability of these catalysts are attributed to a strong catalyst-support interaction where the defect sites in the reduced GO nanosheets act as nucleation centers for anchoring the Pd and Fe3O4 nanoparticles thus minimizing the potential of their agglomeration and the subsequent decrease in the catalytic activity. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


National Science Foundation, Grant OISE-1002970

Keywords and Phrases

Catalysis; Catalyst recycling; Cross-Coupling; Graphene; Hydrazine hydrate; Magnetite (Fe O ) 3 4; Microwave heating; Pd nanoparticles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1572-879X; 1011-372X

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





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Publication Date

01 Jun 2017