Titanium (Ti) implants are extensively used in a number of biomedical and dental applications. This work introduces Ti into the glass phase of a zinc-based glass polyalkenoate cement (GPC) and investigates changes in handling and mechanical properties considering two molecular weight polyacrylic acids (PAA), E9 and E11. Considering the handling properties, the working time (Tw) increased from 50 sE9, 32 sE11 (BT 101, Ti-free) to 169 sE9, 74 sE11 with TW-Z (highest Ti content), respectively. The setting time (Ts) increased from 76 sE9, 47 sE11 (BT 101) to 303 sE9, 232 sE11 with TW-Z, respectively. Ti was also found to have a significant increase on both compressive (σc) and biaxial flexural strength (σf), where σc increased from 36 MPaE9, 56 MPaE11 (BT 101) to 56 MPaE9 and 70 MPaE11 with TW-Z respectfully. σf also increased from 11 MPaE9, 22 MPaE11 (BT 101) to 22 MPaE9 and 77 MPaE11 with TW-Z, respectively. No increase in mechanical properties was evident with respect to maturation. Raman Spectroscopy was employed to investigate changes in glass structure and the setting of the cements with. This revealed increased glass network disruption with increasing TiO2 content and matured cement setting with TW-Z as compared to the control BT 101. FT-IR was then employed to investigate any additional setting mechanism and changes with time. Spectroscopy determined that Ca2+/Sr2+PAA complexes are primarily responsible for the setting and mechanical strength with no changes occurring over time.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


Enterprise Ireland, Grant TD/2005/327

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1573-4838; 0957-4530

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Aug 2010

PubMed ID