A series of titanium (Ti) based glasses were formulated (0.62 SiO2-0.14 Na2O-0.24 CaO, with 0.05 mol% TiO2 substitutions for SiO2) to develop glass/ceramic scaffolds for bone augmentation. Glasses were initially characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle size analysis, where the starting materials were amorphous with 4.5 μm particles. Hot stage microscopy and high temperature XRD were used to determine the sintering temperature (̃700 °C) and any crystalline phases present in this region (Na2Ca3Si6O16, combeite and quartz). Hardness testing revealed that the Ti-free control (ScC- 2.4 GPa) had a significantly lower hardness than the Ti-containing materials (Sc1 and Sc2 ̃6.6 GPa). Optical microscopy determined pore sizes ranging from 544 to 955 lm. X-ray microtomography calculated porosity from 87 to 93 % and surface area measurements ranging from 2.5 to 3.3 SA/mm3. Cytotoxicity testing (using mesenchymal stem cells) revealed that all materials encouraged cell proliferation, particularly the higher Ti-containing scaffolds over 24-72 h. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1573-4838; 0957-4530

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





© 2023 The Authors, All rights reserved.

Creative Commons Licensing

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Publication Date

01 Dec 2012

PubMed ID