Does Elevating Silver Content in Zinc-Based Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Increase their Antibacterial Efficacy Against Two Common Bacteria using the Agar Gel Diffusion Method?
The authors have previously shown that it is possible to incorporate silver into a soda-zinc-silicate glass and subsequently form a glass polyalkenoate cement from it. The objective of the research described herein is to determine if incremental increases in the silver content of these glass polyalkenoate cements will increase their antibacterial efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using the accepted spread plate method. Four glass polyalkenoate cements were formulated; three contained increasing amounts of silver incorporated into them (cements A, B, and C, containing 0.33 mol%, 0.66 mol%, and 0.99 mol% silver, respectively) and a fourth contained no silver, which acted as a control (control cement). The handling properties of the glass polyalkenoate cements were evaluated, where working times were around 2 min and setting times ranged from 1 h 17 min to 2 h 41 min. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine silver ion release with cement maturation for up to 14 days. The majority of silver ions were released within the first 24 h, with up to 2 mg/L cumulative ion release recorded up to 14 days. The antibacterial properties of the coatings were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The silver-glass polyalkenoate cements exhibited antibacterial effect against both bacterial strains. The maximum inhibition zones recorded against S. aureus was 14.8 mm (SD ± 1.11) and against P. aeruginosa was 20.6 mm (SD ± 0.81). Cement B had a greater antibacterial effect compared to cement A, however, cements B and C had comparable antibacterial effects after 14 days even though cement C contained 0.33 mol% more silver than B. This indicates that by increasing the silver content in these cements, the antibacterial efficacy increases to a point, but there is a threshold where further silver ion release does not increase the antibacterial effect. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
A. Coughlan et al., "Does Elevating Silver Content in Zinc-Based Glass Polyalkenoate Cements Increase their Antibacterial Efficacy Against Two Common Bacteria using the Agar Gel Diffusion Method?," Journal of Biomaterials Applications, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 840 - 847, SAGE Publications, Mar 2013.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1177/0885328211427775
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
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01 Mar 2013