A bioactive glass (BG) in which Ga was substituted for Zn was formulated to investigate whether the ionic form of Ga can elicit effects similar to gallium nitrate. The ion release and pH of BG extracts were evaluated, as well as the in vitro cytocompatibility of extracts in contact with mouse fibroblasts and human osteoblasts. After incubation times of 1 year, the glass (TGa-1) containing the smaller Ga-addition (8 mol%) released the most sodium (Na) (1420 mg/L), silicon (Si) (221 mg/L), and Ga (1295 mg/L), while the glass (TGa-2) containing the larger Ga-addition (16 mol%), exhibited release levels between TGa-1, and the 0 mol% Ga (Control) glass. The pH of all 3 glass extracts steadily increased over time, with maximums observed after 365 days for Control (10.0), TGa-1 (12.2), and TGa-2 (9.7). Cell viability analysis suggested that Ga-release produced toxic effects in L-929 fibroblasts, with less than 3 % viability for both TGa-1 and TGa-2 extracts after 90, 180, and 365 days; however, no significant decrease in MC-3T3 osteoblast viability was observed for TGa-1 extracts after any time period, despite the higher ion release and pH values, and a significant decrease to 51 % viability was only observed for TGa-2 extracts after 365 days. These results suggest that tailoring the release of Ga from BG is not only possible, but also beneficial to the host, thus rendering such glasses useful in bone void-filling applications.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1573-4803; 0022-2461

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Final Version

File Type





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Publication Date

01 Jan 2016