Experimental Validation of the Mechanistic Scale-Up Methodology of Gas–solid Spouted Beds using Radioactive Particle Tracking (Rpt)


The very high-temperature reactors (VHTRs) are highly ranked among candidates of Generation IV of nuclear reactors due to their high efficiency, safety, the resistance to proliferation, and reliability. The VHTRs are preferentially fuelled by Tristructural-isometric (TRISO) coated fuel particles which has fuel kernels of fissile material coated by four coating layers: a porous buffer pyrolysis carbon layer (buffer PyC), an inner dense pyrolysis carbon layer (IPyC), a silicon carbide layer (SiC) and an outer dense pyrolysis carbon layer (OPyC). The heart of the operation and safety of the VHTRs significantly depends on the reliability of the coating layers of TRISO particles to retain metallic and gaseous fission products within the particles. The technique used for coating TRISO particles are gas-solids spouted beds via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fabrication of high-quality low-defect TRISO fuel particles fuel at larger scale spouted beds is required to support the commercialization of the VHTRs. In this work, our new developed mechanistic scale-up methodology of gas-solids spouted beds based on matching the radial profile of gas-holdup has been demonstrated and validated using radioactive particle tracking (RPT). Two spouted beds of small and larger scales were used in the study. Three sets of conditions were carried out which include the conditions of the reference case in the large scale, conditions that provide similar gas holdup radial profile to that of the reference case and conditions that provided dissimilar gas holdup radial in the small-scale spouted beds. The results confirm the validation of the scale-up methodology in terms of the dimensionless values of the spout diameter, cumulative probability distribution of the solids particles penetration into the spout, fraction of cycle time in each region of the bed, the radial profiles of the dimensionless values of the root-mean-square particle velocities and solids eddy diffusivity. The results further advance the knowledge and understanding of the gas-solids spouted beds provide deeper insight into their solids dynamics and presenting important benchmarking data for validating computational fluid dynamics codes and models. At last, procedures are established for the implementation of the new scale-up methodology.


Chemical and Biochemical Engineering


U.S. Department of Energy, Grant DEFC07-07ID14822

Keywords and Phrases

Radioactive Particle Tracking (Rpt); Scale-Up; Spouted Beds; Triso; Very High-Temperature Reactors (Vhtrs)

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

1873-2100; 0306-4549

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


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© 2023 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

Publication Date

01 Feb 2023