Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements Probe Water Nanodroplet Evolution under Highly Non-Equilibrium Conditions
Our in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements yield an unprecedented and detailed view of rapidly evolving H2O nanodroplets formed in supersonic nozzles. The SAXS experiments produce spectra in a few seconds that are comparable to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectra requiring several hours of integration time and the use of deuterated compounds. These measurements now make it possible to quantitatively determine the maximum nucleation and growth rates of small droplets formed under conditions that are far from equilibrium. Particle growth is directly followed from about 10 µs to 100 µs after particle formation with growth rates of 0.2 to 0.02 nm µs-1. The peak H2O nucleation rates lie between 1017 and 1018 cm-3 s-1.
B. E. Wyslouzil et al., "Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements Probe Water Nanodroplet Evolution under Highly Non-Equilibrium Conditions," Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Royal Society of Chemistry, Jan 2007.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b709363b
American Chemical Society
National Science Foundation (U.S.)
Petroleum Research Fund
United States. Department of Energy
Keywords and Phrases
Nanodroplets; Small-angle x-ray scattering; Supersonic nozzles; Water
Article - Journal
© 2007 Royal Society of Chemistry, All rights reserved.