We discuss a scheme to retrieve transient conformational molecular structure information using photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) that have averaged over partial alignments of isolated molecules. The photoelectron is pulled out from a localized inner-shell molecular orbital by an X-ray photon. We show that a transient change in the atomic positions from their equilibrium will lead to a sensitive change in the alignment-averaged PADs, which can be measured and used to retrieve the former. Exploiting the experimental convenience of changing the photon polarization direction, we show that it is advantageous to use PADs obtained from multiple photon polarization directions. A simple single-scattering model is proposed and benchmarked to describe the photoionization process and to do the retrieval using a multiple-parameter fitting method.
X. Wang et al., "Retrieving Transient Conformational Molecular Structure Information from Inner-Shell Photoionization of Laser-Aligned Molecules," Scientific Reports, vol. 6, Nature Publishing Group, Mar 2016.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1038/srep23655
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