Efficient Multiphoton Excitation of Multiply Excited States
It is shown that if an atomic excitation involves the absorption of more than one photon above the ionization limit, then the total population transfer depends not only on the two-photon generalized excitation cross section but also on the one-photon loss cross section. In the limit of large population transfers, the efficiency can be dominated by the one-photon loss cross section.
J. G. Story et al., "Efficient Multiphoton Excitation of Multiply Excited States," Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 811-814, The Optical Society, May 1987.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.4.000811
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