Dynamic Torque and Soil Deformation Mechanics and Simulation of the GAP Virtual Machinery


Global crude oil demand is growing at a faster rate than supply. Many conventional oil fields have peaked in the middle of a growing demand across the globe. Oil sands and heavy oil reserves will provide partial solution to this problem in the foreseeable future. Research is thus required to provide answers to difficult and challenging problems associated with the economic extraction of oil sands. The ground articulating pipeline (GAP) system is a novel and potential technology being considered for oil sands production. This paper deals with some results of the current research initiatives on the GAP system dynamics and machine-oil sands interactions. Mathematical models governing the GAP mechanism and the oil sand terrain dynamics are modeled based on the theory of multi-body and soil mechanics, which are derived from Newton-Euler dynamics. These models consist of the GAP dynamic model for analyzing the dynamic driving torque of the system, GAP track-oil sand contact model for generating the contact force between oil sands and track and load-deformation oil sand model for capturing the dynamic behavior of oil sands. The results are used to develop 3D virtual prototype simulators using the ADAMS software. The virtual prototype models are validated using real-world data to generate the driving torque for the various GAP machine carriages and the dynamic response of the oil sands to carriage motion. The simulation results of the effect of the friction between oil sands ground and carriage, the angular velocity of the pipeline and the load applied to each machine carriage on the driving torque show that the load and friction have a greater influence on the driving torque value than angular velocity. The interactions between oil sands and tracks at an environmental temperature of 25°C are analyzed in detail under visco-elastic material conditions. The simulation result of the effect of load on oil sand deformation indicates that maximum deformation value increases non-linearly with load varying from 0 to 60t. The research results provide fundamental insights into the effective deployment of the GAP machinery in the tough oil sands conditions.


Mining and Nuclear Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Ground Articulating Pipeline; Oil Sands Terrain; Dynamic Modeling; Driving Torque; Virtual Prototype Simulation; Load Deformation

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version


File Type





© 2013 OMICS Publishing Group, All rights reserved.