Piping in the Flow of Granular Material from Rectangular Bins
An examination of the conditions that exist in bins which are suited to the plane-strain idealization indicates that pipe flow is a stable condition in these bins. Piping is the flow of material in a bin in a flow field not much larger than the underlying orifice. This flow is counter to the more efficient 'mass', or expanding flow. A model bin was built to study this type of flow; of interest was a grid technique that was used to determine the velocities in the failing material. This technique allows an evaluation of the major principal stress direction. Results from the experiment tended to verify the conclusion that piping is a stable condition. This result implies that inefficient flow can be expected from plane-strain bins. These would be slot bins, like the model, bunkers, and certain types of mine stopes. © 1971.
L. W. Saperstein and N. C. Ozgen, "Piping in the Flow of Granular Material from Rectangular Bins," International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Elsevier, Jan 1971.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(71)90035-0
Mining and Nuclear Engineering
Article - Journal
© 1971 Elsevier, All rights reserved.