Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) During the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)
The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell)Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2), total hydrocarbons (THC), carbonmonoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulatematter (PM)mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x1015 to 5 x1015 particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PMEIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of~90%for SO2 and particlemass EIs and~60%for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfatewas reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of ~5 as compared with JP-8.
J. S. Kinsey and M. T. Timko and S. C. Herndon and E. Wood and Z. Yu and R. C. Miake-Lye and P. Lobo and P. D. Whitefield and D. E. Hagen and C. Wey and B. E. Anderson and A. J. Beyersdorf and C. H. Hudgins and K. L. Thornhill and E. Winstead and R. Howard and D. I. Bulzan and K. B. Tacina and W. B. Knighton, "Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) During the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)," Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 420-430, Taylor & Francis, Jan 2012.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2012.655884
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Air pollution; Air pollution control; Benzene; Carbon dioxide; Coal combustion; Experiments; Fuels; Gas emissions; Hydrocarbons; NASA; Nitrogen oxides; Particle size analysis; Sulfur; Sulfur dioxide; Waste management; Auxiliary power units; Aviation fuel; Black carbon; Control strategies; Engine load; Fischer-tropsch fuels; FT fuel; Fuel compositions; Fuel types; Gasphase; Geometric mean; Honeywell; Mass emissions; Multiple research; Online editions; Organics; Particle numbers; Sampling probes; Smoke Numbers; Test matrix; Total hydrocarbons; Urban areas; Waste Management Association
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