Three-Dimensional Modeling of Transport Phenomena and Their Effect on the Formation of Ripples in Gas Metal Arc Welding
Distinct, periodic arc-shaped ripples are observed on the surface of the weld bead in almost any welded components which have a significant effect on weld quality. This article presents the complex transport phenomena and their effect on the formation of ripples in three-dimensional moving gas metal arc welding. The transient distributions of the melt flow velocity and temperature in the weld pool, weld pool shape and dynamics, and solidified weld bead are calculated. It is found that the surface ripples are formed by the interplay between the up-and-down weld pool dynamics, caused mainly by the periodic droplet impingements, and the rate of weld pool solidification. The effects of various welding parameters, including the welding current, droplet size, droplet frequency, droplet impinging velocity, and travel speed on the pitch (distance between two ripples) and height of the ripple are investigated. This study provides fundamental understanding to the underlying physics that cause the formation of ripples with different pitches and heights. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Z. H. Rao et al., "Three-Dimensional Modeling of Transport Phenomena and Their Effect on the Formation of Ripples in Gas Metal Arc Welding," Journal of Applied Physics, American Institute of Physics (AIP), Jan 2010.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3326163
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Article - Journal
© 2010 American Institute of Physics (AIP), All rights reserved.