Mission-Integrated Exergy Analysis for Hypersonic Vehicles: Methodology and Application
Recently developed theoretical work in which energy (the first law of thermodynamics) and entropy (the second law of thermodynamics) considerations are consistently applied to aerospace vehicles is used to provide a detailed exergy (availability) and performance analysis for an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle. An acceleration and climb mission at constant freestream dynamic pressure is performed with detailed instantaneous and time-integrated audits of entropy generation in and over the vehicle and in the vehicle wake. Entropy generation in the vehicle wake ranges from five to eight times the total entropy generation in and over the vehicle. The impact of irreversibility occurring in and over the vehicle itself on the total entropy generation in the wake is a small fraction of the overall wake losses. Fifteen percent of the overall energy input during the mission actually goes into productive acceleration and climb. The remainder is associated with the generation of entropy due to irreversibility in and over the vehicle and in the vehicle wake. The propulsion system is responsible for almost all entropy generation associated solely with the vehicle (excluding the overwhelmingly dominant contribution of the vehicle wake), and entropy generation in the combustor alone represents 85% of the total propulsion system loss.
D. W. Riggins et al., "Mission-Integrated Exergy Analysis for Hypersonic Vehicles: Methodology and Application," Journal of Propulsion and Power, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Jan 2013.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.2514/1.B34733
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Article - Journal
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