Interaction of Alumina Inclusions in Steel with Calcium-containing Materials
Clogging of tundish and submerged entry nozzles (SENs) adversely impacts productivity and quality in the continuous casting of aluminum-killed steels. Clogging results from an accretion layer that develops on the inside surface of the nozzle and restricts steel flow. Current nozzle refractories often react with molten steel to form solid by products that promote clogging. Nozzle materials that are inert with the liquid steel or react with accretions to form liquid reaction products could inhibit or eliminate clogging. Static experiments were conducted to investigate the stability between calcium-based materials and aluminum-killed steel. The results indicate that both calcium titanate and calcium zirconate react with alumina to form calcium aluminates. However, only the reaction between alumina and calcium titanate yielded calcium aluminate chemistries that were molten at steel casting temperatures. Liquid reaction products are preferred since they would be removed from the nozzle by the steel flow, thereby preventing accretion formation and clogging.
R. B. Tuttle et al., "Interaction of Alumina Inclusions in Steel with Calcium-containing Materials," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, Springer Verlag, Jan 2005.
Materials Science and Engineering
American Iron and Steel Institute
United States. Department of Energy
Keywords and Phrases
Aluminum-Killed Steels; Clogging; Submerged Entry Nozzles; Tundish Entry Nozzles; Continuous casting
Article - Journal
© 2005 Springer Verlag, All rights reserved.