Refractories for Copper Production
The furnaces used for producing molten copper from concentrates and scrap - flash smelters, converters, and anode and tire-refining furnaces - present a unique combination of challenges to refractory life. Highly aggressive slags mechanical stresses, batch operation, and increasingly higher operating temperature all combine to destroy most refractory materials. Over the past generation, copper producers have adopted refractory materials based on the MgO-Cr2O3 system to meet these challenges, to the point where mag-chrome brick is used almost exclusively in the industry. However, recent environment imperatives have created a need to develop chrome-free alternative refractories for copper smelters, converters and refining furnaces. Some possible alternative materials are introduced and speculation is made about the locations where they might be used most advantageously.
M. E. Schlesinger, "Refractories for Copper Production," Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review, Taylor & Francis, Jan 1996.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08827509608914131
Materials Science and Engineering
Article - Journal
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