Title

Interaction of Ag/Pd Metallization with Lead and Bismuth Oxide-based Fluxes in Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

Abstract

An ongoing challenge for future developments in high-performance ceramic multilayer capacitors and integrated ceramics is to reduce the internal electrode cost and thickness without sacrificing yield or reliability. Key to these developments is a thorough understanding of the interactions which occur between flux-sintered dielectrics and low-cost, Ag/Pd electrodes. in this paper we present results on the pahse equilibria of Ag/Pd electrode systems with Bi2O3 and PbO fluxes. the conditions under which the bismuth reaction occurs and reactions in the Pd-PbO system are reported. Results show that the equilibrium phases which form depend strongly upon the Ag/Pd ratio and temperature. These phases include PdBi2O4, Pd(Bi), PdPbO2, Pd(Pb), and PbPd3. the PdBi2O4 and PdPbO2 phases decompose when PdO destabilizes, resulting in a series of reactions which result in oxygen evolution and partial melting of components. the exact phase relations of the Ag/Pd-Bi2O3-O2(air) system and Ag/Pd-PbO-O2(air) system have been established for the first time and are discussed in terms of their impact on multilayer, cofired structures.

Department(s)

Materials Science and Engineering

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

0002-7820; 1551-2916

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Citation

File Type

text

Language(s)

English

Rights

© 1992 Wiley-Blackwell, All rights reserved.

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