Title

Efficient Numerical Methods For Computing Ground States of Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensates Based on Their Characterizations

Editor(s)

Tryggvason, G.

Abstract

In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field B(x). when B(x)≠0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of mF=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)≡B≠0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. when B(x)≡0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.

Department(s)

Mathematics and Statistics

Keywords and Phrases

Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensate; Ground State; Ferromagnetic; Antiferromagnetic; Single-mode Approximation; Gradient Flow with Discrete Normalization

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Citation

File Type

text

Language(s)

English

Rights

© 2013 Elsevier, All rights reserved.

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