Efficient Numerical Methods For Computing Ground States of Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensates Based on Their Characterizations
In this paper, we propose efficient numerical methods for computing ground states of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with/without the Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field B(x). when B(x)≠0, a numerical method is introduced to compute the ground states and it is also applied to study properties of ground states. Numerical results suggest that the densities of mF=±1 components in ground states are identical for any nonzero B(x). In particular, if B(x)≡B≠0 is a constant, the ground states satisfy the single-mode approximation. when B(x)≡0, efficient and simpler numerical methods are presented to solve the ground states of spin-1 BECs based on their ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic characterizations. Numerical simulations show that our methods are more efficient than those in the literature. In addition, some conjectures are made from our numerical observations.
W. Bao et al., "Efficient Numerical Methods For Computing Ground States of Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensates Based on Their Characterizations," Journal of Computational Physics, Elsevier, Jan 2013.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2013.06.036
Mathematics and Statistics
Keywords and Phrases
Spin-1 Bose-Einstein Condensate; Ground State; Ferromagnetic; Antiferromagnetic; Single-mode Approximation; Gradient Flow with Discrete Normalization
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