Location

New York, New York

Session Start Date

4-13-2004

Session End Date

4-17-2004

Abstract

Soil improvement methods have been widely used to reduce the potential for liquefaction-related damages in sandy soils and strain-related problems in soft clays. The procedures and techniques used in the design of improved soil have been continuously improved. Filed case history data have always been crucial to refining such techniques and procedures. The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4) struck northwestern Turkey and caused significant damage in urban and industrial areas along Izmit Bay. The sites were subjected to ground motions ranging from about 0.10g to 0.42g. This paper presents the performance of the Ipekkagit Tissue Factory site in Karamursel at the southern waterfront of Izmit bay, where the soils were improved with jet-grout columns. The site is located just 4km south of the main fault rapture. In general the subsoil at the site consists of a 3m thick stiff clay layer at top, followed by a series of low-to-medium dense sand and silt deposits. Below 9 m stratum stiff-to-hard clays extends to the bottom of exploration depth of 32 m. The water table was found at a depth of 1.5 to 2m. Jet-grout columns were installed to reduce anticipated static and earthquake induced settlements due to cyclic mobility of clays and to mitigate liquefaction in sands and silts considering the seismicity of the site, prior to the subject event. Maximum acceleration at the site reached to about 0.3g during the August 17, 1999 main shock, as estimated from the nearby recordings. Following the earthquake and significant aftershocks, the authors investigated the site to document geotechnical field performance focusing mainly on the effects of soil improvement to the performance of the site and nearby structures. Observations showed that ground treatment by means of jetgrout columns was effective in mitigating earthquake-related damages, especially relative to damages observed at nearby structures and sites of non-treated ground.

Department(s)

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Appears In

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Meeting Name

Fifth Conference

Publisher

University of Missouri--Rolla

Publication Date

4-13-2004

Document Version

Final Version

Rights

© 2004 University of Missouri--Rolla, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

File Type

text

Language

English

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Apr 13th, 12:00 AM Apr 17th, 12:00 AM

Soil Improvement with Jet-Grout Columns: A Case Study from the 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake

New York, New York

Soil improvement methods have been widely used to reduce the potential for liquefaction-related damages in sandy soils and strain-related problems in soft clays. The procedures and techniques used in the design of improved soil have been continuously improved. Filed case history data have always been crucial to refining such techniques and procedures. The 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake (M=7.4) struck northwestern Turkey and caused significant damage in urban and industrial areas along Izmit Bay. The sites were subjected to ground motions ranging from about 0.10g to 0.42g. This paper presents the performance of the Ipekkagit Tissue Factory site in Karamursel at the southern waterfront of Izmit bay, where the soils were improved with jet-grout columns. The site is located just 4km south of the main fault rapture. In general the subsoil at the site consists of a 3m thick stiff clay layer at top, followed by a series of low-to-medium dense sand and silt deposits. Below 9 m stratum stiff-to-hard clays extends to the bottom of exploration depth of 32 m. The water table was found at a depth of 1.5 to 2m. Jet-grout columns were installed to reduce anticipated static and earthquake induced settlements due to cyclic mobility of clays and to mitigate liquefaction in sands and silts considering the seismicity of the site, prior to the subject event. Maximum acceleration at the site reached to about 0.3g during the August 17, 1999 main shock, as estimated from the nearby recordings. Following the earthquake and significant aftershocks, the authors investigated the site to document geotechnical field performance focusing mainly on the effects of soil improvement to the performance of the site and nearby structures. Observations showed that ground treatment by means of jetgrout columns was effective in mitigating earthquake-related damages, especially relative to damages observed at nearby structures and sites of non-treated ground.