Alternative Title

Paper No. SOA-4

Location

St. Louis, Missouri

Session Start Date

3-8-1998

Session End Date

3-15-1998

Abstract

An overview is presented on seismic performance of rigid and flexible retaining walls based on case histories during earthquakes, notably from the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Three critical issues are discussed out of these case histories: (l) If the effects of an earthquake motion are approximated in terms of a pseudo-static inertia force using the Mononobe-Okabe equation, the equivalent seismic coefficient for evaluating gross stability of retaining walls should be less than 100 %, about 60 % on average, of a peak ground acceleration specified as a fraction of gravity (amax/g); (2) Liquefaction or excess pore water pressure increase in the subsoil seriously affects the retaining walls at waterfront, often resulting in excessively large displacements. Collapse of the wall, however, is rare. More attention should be directed toward identifying the mode and mechanism of displacements/failure of the retaining walls at the waterfront; (3) The order of the displacements of the walls at waterfront, ranging from 5 to 50% of the wall height, are summarized in a tentative list, classified by the structural type of walls, the level of earthquake shaking, and the extent of liquefaction.

Department(s)

Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering

Appears In

International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering

Meeting Name

Fourth Conference

Publisher

University of Missouri--Rolla

Publication Date

3-8-1998

Document Version

Final Version

Rights

© 1998 University of Missouri--Rolla, All rights reserved.

Document Type

Article - Conference proceedings

File Type

text

Language

English

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Rigid and Flexible Retaining Walls During Kobe Earthquake

St. Louis, Missouri

An overview is presented on seismic performance of rigid and flexible retaining walls based on case histories during earthquakes, notably from the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Three critical issues are discussed out of these case histories: (l) If the effects of an earthquake motion are approximated in terms of a pseudo-static inertia force using the Mononobe-Okabe equation, the equivalent seismic coefficient for evaluating gross stability of retaining walls should be less than 100 %, about 60 % on average, of a peak ground acceleration specified as a fraction of gravity (amax/g); (2) Liquefaction or excess pore water pressure increase in the subsoil seriously affects the retaining walls at waterfront, often resulting in excessively large displacements. Collapse of the wall, however, is rare. More attention should be directed toward identifying the mode and mechanism of displacements/failure of the retaining walls at the waterfront; (3) The order of the displacements of the walls at waterfront, ranging from 5 to 50% of the wall height, are summarized in a tentative list, classified by the structural type of walls, the level of earthquake shaking, and the extent of liquefaction.