Terpolymer Gel System Formed by Resorcinol-Hexamethylenetetramine for Water Management in Extremely High-Temperature Reservoirs
An in situ terpolymer gel system formed by resorcinol-hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) was developed and systematically evaluated for water management in extremely higherature reservoirs. Suitable gelation time and favorable gelation performance were obtained by adjusting terpolymer and/or cross-linker system concentrations. With the increase of the terpolymer, the resorcinol-HMTA concentration increased both the gelation time and gelation performance. The gel system was prepared by deionized water and maintained good thermostability in a high-salinity environment. Very low concentrations of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 can delay gelation time. After the critical concentrations are reached, these inorganic ions will boost the cross-linking reaction; however, the presence of MgCl2 shortens gelation time. The gel system in ampules was kept stable at 150 °C for 5 months, and the differential scanning calorimetry measurement indicated that the gel system could be used for water management at temperatures up to 240 °C. Uniformly distributed three-dimensional network microstructures and dendritic structures among the gel grid pores could further increase the network structure strength and firmly lock water within the gel even under extremely high temperatures. The use of the gelation mechanism of an in situ terpolymer gel system formed by resorcinol-HMTA can help petroleum engineers control gelation time and performance.
D. Zhu et al., "Terpolymer Gel System Formed by Resorcinol-Hexamethylenetetramine for Water Management in Extremely High-Temperature Reservoirs," Energy and Fuels, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 1519-1528, American Chemical Society (ACS), Feb 2017.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03188
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Crosslinking; Cyclohexane; Deionized Water; Differential Scanning Calorimetry; Phenols; Water Management; Critical Concentration; Crosslinking Reaction; Dendritic Structures; Gelation Mechanisms; High Temperature; Low Concentrations; Network Structures; Three-Dimensional Networks; Gelation
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
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