Preformed Particle Gel Transport through Open Fractures and its Effect on Water Flow
Transparent fracture models were constructed to visually track swollen preformed particle gel (PPG) propagation through open fractures and water flow through PPG placed in fractures. It was observed that PPG propagated like a piston along a fracture during PPG injection and a gel pack was formed in the fracture after gel placement and water broke through the particle gel pack to create several water channels to discharge water from the outlet during water injection after PPG placement. The factors that influence PPG injectivity and plugging efficiency have been investigated. Results show that PPG injectivity increases with fracture width and flow rate and decreases with brine concentration on which PPG swollen ratio is dependent. PPG can reduce the permeability of different width fracture to the same level. Full factorial experimental design was performed to rank the influence of injection rate, fracture width, and PPG swelling ratio on the response of pressure, resistance factor and injectivity.
H. Zhang and B. Bai, "Preformed Particle Gel Transport through Open Fractures and its Effect on Water Flow," Proceedings of the 17th SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium (2010, Tulsa, OK), vol. 2, pp. 1157-1171, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Apr 2010.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129908-MS
17th SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium (2010: Apr, 24-28, Tulsa, OK)
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Brine Concentration; Discharge Water; Fracture Model; Fracture Width; Full Factorial; Gel Placement; Injection Rates; Injectivity; Resistance Factors; Swelling Ratio; Water Channels; Water Flows; Flow Of Water; Fracture; Hydraulics; Water Injection; Gels
International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
Article - Conference proceedings
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