Preformed Particle Gel for Conformance Control: Factors Affecting its Properties and Applications
Preformed particle gel (PPG) is a particled superabsorbent crossklinking polymer that can swell up to 200 times its orginal size in brine. The use of PPG as a fluid-diverting agent to control conformance is a novel process designed to overcome some distinct drawbacks inherent in in-situ gelation systems. This paper introduces the effect of gelant compositions and reservoir environments on the two properties of PPG: swollen gel strength and swelling capacity. Results have shown that PPG properties are influenced by gelant compositions, temperature, brine salinity, and pH below 6. Temperature increases PPG swelling capacity but decreases its swollen gel strength. Salinity decreases PPG swelling capacity but increases its swollen gel strength. PPG is thermostable at an elevated temperature of 120°C if a special additive agent is added into its gelant as a composition. PPG is strength- and size-controlled, environmentally friendly, and not sensitive to reservoir minerals and formation water salinity. Two field applications are introduced to illustrate the criteria of well candidate selection and the design and operation process of PPG treatments. Field applications show that PPG treatment is a cost-effective method to correct permeability heterogeneity for the reservoirs with fractures or channels, both of which are widely found in mature waterflooded oil fields.
B. Bai et al., "Preformed Particle Gel for Conformance Control: Factors Affecting its Properties and Applications," SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 415-422, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Aug 2007.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89389-PA
Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Gels; High temperature effects; Mechanical permeability; Oil fields; Particles (particulate matter); pH effects; Strength of materials; Thermodynamic stability; Gelant compositions; Preformed particle gel (PPG); Swelling capacity
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Article - Journal
© 2007 Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), All rights reserved.