Modeling Noise Coupling Between Package and PCB Power/Ground Planes with an Efficient 2-D FDTD/Lumped Element Method
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An efficient numerical approach based on the 2-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed to model the power/ground plane noise or simultaneously switching noise (SSN), including the interconnect effect between the package and the print circuit board (PCB). The space between the power and ground planes on the package and PCB are meshed with 2-D cells. The equivalent R-L-C circuits of the via and the solder balls connecting the package and PCB can be incorporated into a 2-D Yee cell based on a novel integral formulation in the time domain. An efficient recursive updating algorithm is proposed to fit the lumped networks into the Yee equations. A test sample of a ball grid array (BGA) package mounted on a PCB was fabricated. The power/ground noise coupling behavior was measured and compared with the simulation. The proposed method significantly reduces the computing time compared with other full-wave numerical approaches.