Volumes of Critical Bubbles from the Nucleation Theorem
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A corollary of the nucleation theorem due to Kashchiev [Nucleation: Basic Theory with Applications (Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 2000)] allows the volume V* of a critical bubble to be determined from nucleation rate measurements. The original derivation was limited to one-component, ideal gas bubbles with a vapor density much smaller than that of the ambient liquid. Here, an exact result is found for multicomponent, nonideal gas bubbles. Provided a weak density inequality holds, this result reduces to Kashchiev's simple form which thus has a much broader range of applicability than originally expected. Limited applications to droplets are also mentioned, and the utility of the pT,x form of the nucleation theorem as a sum rule is noted