FDTD Modeling of Skin Effect
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The data rates and clock speeds of current high-speed signals are increasing rapidly, consequently, not only the lossy nature of FR-4 but also the lossy nature of good conductors, such as copper, need to be taken into account in high-speed signal designs. In order to predict the loss caused by both dielectric loss and skin effect loss, a suitable simulation tool is needed. A surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC) algorithm was implemented in FDTD modeling herein to accommodate the skin effect loss due to finite conductivity of good conductors. Good agreement between the FDTD result and the measurements as well as the SPICE result was obtained for a 14 mils wide strip line.