Transmission Line Modeling of Vias in Differential Signals
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Signal layer transitions in differential lines are modeled using both FDTD and equivalent circuit methods. The equivalent circuit is developed based on transmission-line reasoning regarding via behavior. Parameters of each transmission-line segment are obtained based on its corresponding physical geometry. The mixed-mode S-parameters from the equivalent circuit and the FDTD modeling are compared. Good agreement is demonstrated in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 20 GHz. The results indicate that vias in differential lines can be modeled as a transmission line for a quick and easy engineering estimation of the differential signal behavior in an environment of signal layer transitions.