Lumped-Circuit Model Extraction for Vias in Multilayer Substrates
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Via interconnects in multilayer substrates, such as chip scale packaging, ball grid arrays, multichip modules, and printed circuit boards (PCB) can critically impact system performance. Lumped-circuit models for vias are usually established from their geometries to better understand the physics. This paper presents a procedure to extract these element values from a partial element equivalent circuit type method, denoted by CEMPIE. With a known physics-based circuit prototype, this approach calculates the element values from an extensive circuit net extracted by the CEMPIE method. Via inductances in a PCB power bus, including mutual inductances if multiple vias are present, are extracted in a systematic manner using this approach. A closed-form expression for via self inductance is further derived as a function of power plane dimensions, via diameter, power/ground layer separation, and via location. The expression can be used in practical designs for evaluating via inductance without the necessity of full-wave modeling, and, predicting power-bus impedance as well as effective frequency range of decoupling capacitors.