Synthesis and Characterization of New 1,1′-diester, Diketone, and Dinitrile Derivatives of 2,2′-biimidazole
Substituted 1,1′-diester, diketone and dinitrile derivatives are prepared from 2,2′-biimidazole. the reactions involved include: Michael addition with halogenated olefins; nucleopbilic substitution with ketones, nitriles, and esters; and condensation with amines.
M. Barnett et al., "Synthesis and Characterization of New 1,1′-diester, Diketone, and Dinitrile Derivatives of 2,2′-biimidazole," Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, Wiley-Blackwell, Jan 1996.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhet.5570330458
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