Demonstration of the Elusive Concentration-gradient Paramagnetic Force
Using classical electrochemistry, it is demonstrated that the concentration-gradient paramagnetic force, F∇C, is a body force proportional to |B|2 acting parallel to the concentration gradient of electrogenerated radicals. F∇C can balance gravity, holding volumes of solution wherein mass transfer continues to take place by diffusion. In contrast to usual levitation forces, F∇C does not depend on field gradients and may be present even in homogeneous magnetic fields. Understanding the properties of F∇C is relevant to magnetic confinement and levitation and is speculated even to propulsion with objects having permanent susceptibility gradients. Copyright © 2005 American Chemical Society.
N. Leventis and A. Dass, "Demonstration of the Elusive Concentration-gradient Paramagnetic Force," Journal of the American Chemical Society, American Chemical Society (ACS), Jan 2005.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja043169b
Article - Journal
© 2005 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.