Electrodeposited Germanium Nanowires
Germanium (Ge) is a group IV semiconductor with superior electronic properties compared with silicon, such as larger carrier mobilities and smaller effective masses. It is also a candidate anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Here, a simple, one-step method is introduced to electrodeposit dense arrays of Ge nanowires onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates from aqueous solution. the electrochemical reduction of ITO produces in nanoparticles that act as a reduction site for aqueous Ge(IV) species, and as a solvent for the crystallization of Ge nanowires. Nanowires deposited at 95 °C have an average diameter of 100 nm, whereas those deposited at room temperature have an average diameter of 35 nm. Both optical absorption and Raman spectroscopy suggest that the electrodeposited Ge is degenerate. the material has an indirect bandgap of 0.90-0.92 eV, compared with a value of 0.67 eV for bulk, intrinsic Ge. the blue shift is attributed to the Moss-Burstein effect, because the material is a p-type degenerate semiconductor. on the basis of the magnitude of the blue shift, the hole concentration is estimated to be 8 × 1019 cm-3. This corresponds to an in impurity concentration of about 0.2 atom %. the resistivity of the wires is estimated to be 4 × 10-5 ·cm. the high conductivity of the wires should make them ideal for lithium-ion battery applications.
N. K. Mahenderkar et al., "Electrodeposited Germanium Nanowires," ACS Nano, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 9524-9530, American Chemical Society (ACS), Jan 2014.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn503784d
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