Measurement of Aircraft Engine Non-Volatile PM Emissions: Results of the Aviation-Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 Campaign
This study reports the first of a kind data on aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) number- and mass-based emissions using standardized systems. Two compliant sampling and measurement systems operated by Missouri University of Science and Technology (Missouri S&T) and Empa were evaluated during the Aviation - Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 campaign at the SR Technics facilities in Zürich, Switzerland, in November 2012. The Missouri S&T and Empa systems were compared during a series of dedicated engine tests using a CFM56-5B4/2P engine source, and maintenance engine testing using CFM56-7B24/3 and PW4168A engine sources at a range of engine operating conditions. These two compliant systems were found to agree within 6% of each other in terms of nvPM number-based emissions, and within 15% for nvPM mass-based emissions. For the three engine sources studied, at several engine power conditions the mass instruments approached their limit of detection, resulting in high measurement uncertainties. Ancillary instrumentation was used to determine PM size distributions, chemical composition, and effective density from mass-mobility experiments. Particle geometric mean mobility diameter ranged 20-45 nm, and geometric standard deviation varied from 1.55 to 1.9 for the three engine types studied. The fraction of PM organic content measured in the emissions from the CFM56-5B4/2P engine was ~4% while the size-dependent particle effective density was parameterized with a mass-mobility exponent of 2.57 and a pre-factor of 0.606. Results of this study will contribute to the development of the new nvPM emissions certification standard and emissions inventories from commercial aviation operations.
P. Lobo and L. Durdina and G. J. Smallwood and T. Rindlisbacher and F. Siegerist and E. A. Black and Z. Yu and A. A. Mensah and D. E. Hagen and R. C. Miake-Lye and K. A. Thomson and B. T. Brem and J. C. Corbin and M. Abegglen and B. A. Sierau and P. D. Whitefield and J. Wang, "Measurement of Aircraft Engine Non-Volatile PM Emissions: Results of the Aviation-Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (A-PRIDE) 4 Campaign," Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 472-484, Taylor & Francis Inc., Jan 2015.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02786826.2015.1047012
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
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