Background: To better assess potential hepatotoxicity of nanomaterials, human liver HepG2 cells were exposed for 3 days to five different CeO2 (either 30 or 100 μg/ml), 3 SiO2 based (30 μg/ml) or 1 CuO (3 μg/ml) nanomaterials with dry primary particle sizes ranging from 15 to 213 nm. Metabolomic assessment of exposed cells was then performed using four mass spectroscopy dependent platforms (LC and GC), finding 344 biochemicals.
Results: Four CeO2, 1 SiO2 and 1 CuO nanomaterials increased hepatocyte concentrations of many lipids, particularly free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols but only CuO elevated lysolipids and sphingolipids. In respect to structure-activity, we now know that five out of six tested CeO2, and both SiO2 and CuO, but zero out of four TiO2 nanomaterials have caused this elevated lipids effect in HepG2 cells. Observed decreases in UDP-glucuronate (by CeO2) and S-adenosylmethionine (by CeO2 and CuO) and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (by CuO and some CeO2) suggest that a nanomaterial exposure increases transmethylation reactions and depletes hepatic methylation and glucuronidation capacity. Our metabolomics data suggests increased free radical attack on nucleotides. There was a clear pattern of nanomaterial-induced decreased nucleotide concentrations coupled with increased concentrations of nucleic acid degradation products. Purine and pyrimidine alterations included concentration increases for hypoxanthine, xanthine, allantoin, urate, inosine, adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate, cytidine and thymidine while decreases were seen for uridine 5'-diphosphate, UDP-glucuronate, uridine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, adenosine 5'-monophophate, cytidine 5'-monophosphate and cytidine 3'-monophosphate. Observed depletions of both 6-phosphogluconate, NADPH and NADH (all by CeO2) suggest that the HepG2 cells may be deficient in reducing equivalents and thus in a state of oxidative stress.
Conclusions: Metal oxide nanomaterial exposure may compromise the methylation, glucuronidation and reduced glutathione conjugation systems; thus Phase II conjugational capacity of hepatocytes may be decreased. This metabolomics study of the effects of nine different nanomaterials has not only confirmed some observations of the prior 2014 study (lipid elevations caused by one CeO2 nanomaterial) but also found some entirely new effects (both SiO2 and CuO nanomaterials also increased the concentrations of several lipid classes, nanomaterial induced decreases in S-adenosylmethionine, UDP-glucuronate, dipeptides, 6-phosphogluconate, NADPH and NADH).
K. T. Kitchin et al., "Metabolomic Effects of CeO₂, SiO₂ and CuO Metal Oxide Nanomaterials on HepG2 Cells," Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 14, BioMed Central, Nov 2017.
The definitive version is available at https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-017-0230-4
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Adenosine; Adenosine Diphosphate; Adenosine Phosphate; Allantoin; Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle; Copper Oxide Nanoparticle; Cytidine; Cytidine Phosphate; Fatty Acids; Free Radical; Hypoxanthine; Inosine; Lipid; Monoacylglycerol; Nucleic Acid; Purine; Pyrimidine; Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide; Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate; S Adenosylhomocysteine; S Adenosylmethionine; Silica Nanoparticle; Sphingolipid; Thymidine; Urate; Uridine Diphosphate; Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid; Uridine Phosphate; Xanthine, Article; Biochemistry; Gas Chromatography; Glucuronidation; Hep-G2 Cell Line; Human; Human Cell; Liquid Chromatography; Liver Cell; Liver Toxicity; Mass Spectrometry; Metabolomics; Methylation; Oxidative Stress; Particle Size; Protein Degradation; Structure Activity Relation; CeO2; CuO; HepG2; Nanomaterial; SiO2
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Article - Journal
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