Title

A Theory for the Primary and Secondary Drying Stages of the Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical Crystalline and Amorphous Solutes: Comparison Between Experimental Data and Theory

Abstract

A theory is constructed to describe quantitatively the dynamic behavior of the primary and secondary drying stages of the freeze-drying of pharmaceutical crystalline and amorphous solutes. Experimental data for the freeze-drying of cloxacillin monosodium salt and skim milk are obtained using a pilot freeze-dryer. The comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data shows that the agreement between experiment and theory is good.

Department(s)

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

Keywords and Phrases

Amorphous Solutes; Crystalline Solutes; Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceuticals; Lyophilization of Pharmaceuticals

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Citation

File Type

text

Language(s)

English

Rights

© 1994 Elsevier, All rights reserved.


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