A Theory for the Primary and Secondary Drying Stages of the Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical Crystalline and Amorphous Solutes: Comparison Between Experimental Data and Theory
A theory is constructed to describe quantitatively the dynamic behavior of the primary and secondary drying stages of the freeze-drying of pharmaceutical crystalline and amorphous solutes. Experimental data for the freeze-drying of cloxacillin monosodium salt and skim milk are obtained using a pilot freeze-dryer. The comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental data shows that the agreement between experiment and theory is good.
R. Bruttini and A. I. Liapis, "A Theory for the Primary and Secondary Drying Stages of the Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical Crystalline and Amorphous Solutes: Comparison Between Experimental Data and Theory," Separations Technology, Elsevier, Jul 1994.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0956-9618(94)80017-0
Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Keywords and Phrases
Amorphous Solutes; Crystalline Solutes; Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceuticals; Lyophilization of Pharmaceuticals
Article - Journal
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