Livestock Hormones in Aquatic Ecosystems
We begin this article with a general description of sources of hormones followed by their transport and fate in the environment. We then focus on occurrences and effects of livestock estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Two case studies from our research are presented in details to contrast levels of estrogens in a concentrated animal farming area in northern Missouri with those in a relatively pristine area in southern Missouri. Estimation of human exposure to estrogenic compounds from various sources would be informative to the general public. Thus, we estimate exposures from environmental estrogens, medicinal estrogens, and dietary phytoestrogens. Estimation of exposure via these three sources was made using 17Î²-estradiol equivalent concentrations. Finally, we discuss the limited available data on other livestock hormones and then conclude with future research that should be conducted to further understand the impact of livestock hormones on aquatic ecosystems.
Y. Huang et al., "Livestock Hormones in Aquatic Ecosystems," ACS Symposium Series, vol. 1018, pp. 135-152, American Chemical Society (ACS), Jan 2009.
The definitive version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bk-2009-1018.ch010
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