Title

Livestock Hormones in Aquatic Ecosystems

Abstract

We begin this article with a general description of sources of hormones followed by their transport and fate in the environment. We then focus on occurrences and effects of livestock estrogens in aquatic ecosystems. Two case studies from our research are presented in details to contrast levels of estrogens in a concentrated animal farming area in northern Missouri with those in a relatively pristine area in southern Missouri. Estimation of human exposure to estrogenic compounds from various sources would be informative to the general public. Thus, we estimate exposures from environmental estrogens, medicinal estrogens, and dietary phytoestrogens. Estimation of exposure via these three sources was made using 17β-estradiol equivalent concentrations. Finally, we discuss the limited available data on other livestock hormones and then conclude with future research that should be conducted to further understand the impact of livestock hormones on aquatic ecosystems.

Department(s)

Biological Sciences

Second Department

Chemistry

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)

9780841269620

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

976156

Document Type

Article - Journal

Document Version

Citation

File Type

text

Language(s)

English

Rights

© 2015 American Chemical Society (ACS), All rights reserved.


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